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Three sets of results are presented below. First, descriptive statistics of the study variables are presented. Second, an ANCOVA is employed to examine the effect of money priming on the distance the participants chose to sit away from the attractive alternative and the moderating effect of gender.
In the third section, we present findings on whether emotion might have influenced the participants' choice of seat. We conducted an ANCOVA to test the influence of the feeling of having more or less money on the distance the participants chose to sit away from the attractive alternative and the moderating effect of gender. Actual income and the bag's position in the experimental arrangement were considered covariates.
Money-priming condition and participant gender served as between-subjects factors. Thus, the feeling of having relatively more money motivates individuals to approach attractive alternatives more closely than the feeling of having relatively less money does.
In other words, individuals who feel they have relatively more money seem to be more likely to use the extra-pair mating strategy than those who feel they have relatively less money. To test whether the differences in the tendency to approach an attractive alternative were caused by emotion, we conducted a t -test to compare the differences in positive mood and negative mood across conditions. Next, we followed Dienes' procedure and calculated a Bayes factor to check whether the differences of mood between the two conditions were really nonsignificant.
PANAS is a 1—5 likert scale and the difference between conditions cannot be more than four. Results showed that the likelihood of the data given the theory was 0. For negative mood, the sample mean was 0.
The Bayes factors were less than a third, so there was substantial evidence for nonsignificant differences of mood between the two conditions, indicating that the differences in approach tendency between the two conditions were not due to emotion. Taking all of our results together, we did not find the hypothesized moderating effect of gender on the influence of the subjective feeling of the amount of money one possesses on individuals' tendency to approach the attractive alternative, suggesting that both men and women with relatively more money are more likely to choose the extra-pair mating strategy than those with less money.
However, we did find that the men selected a closer seat to the attractive member of the opposite sex than the women in both the relatively wealthy and relatively poor conditions. This result is consistent with previous findings that committed women are more likely to distance themselves from the opposite sex than men Lydon et al.
In the current studies, we used money-priming strategies to create the feeling of having relatively more or less money and examined how this feeling influences individuals' mating strategies. Our results showed that the feeling of having relatively more money caused the men, but not the women, to feel less satisfied with their partners' physical appearance and led both the men and women to approach an attractive member of the opposite sex more closely than if they felt they had relatively less money.
Generally speaking, these findings are consistent with the evolutionary proposition that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions such as resource cues Gangestad and Simpson, Differences in the amount of money possessed cause significant variation in mating strategies within each gender.
In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology, human mating strategies are a set of or as a spouse. Dating rules may vary across different cultures, and some societies may even replace the dating process by a courtship instead. Record - Reviews the book, Mating Intelligence Unleashed: The Role of the Mind in Sex, Dating, and Love by Glenn Geher and Scott Barry Kaufman. characteristics, personality, education and income on their dating, mating Key words: evolutionary psychology; sexuality; social and personal relationships.
For men, the within-sex differences derive from the difference in their perceived mate value. For women, access to money might induce different reproductive benefit-cost analyses and the variance in the relative importance of a mate's good genes over parental investment.
In other words, in ancient times, both men and women might tend to make an adaptive trade-off to maximize their reproductive benefits. Interestingly, we did not find that women would make higher demands regarding men's physical appearance when they were primed to feel relatively wealthy. One possible reason for this is that individuals' mate preferences could be conditional on their self-perceived mate value.
Furthermore, self-perceived mate value is sex specific. Men's mate value is based more on resources than women's mate value, while women's mate value depends more on physical attractiveness than men's mate value. Therefore, the difference in self-perceived resources generates the difference in men's partners' satisfaction with their partners' physical appearance, while for women, the effect is much smaller.
An alternative explanation could be that possession of money plays a significant role in men's intrasexual competition, whereas women may experience less sexual selection pressure and have less need for intrasexual competition than men. Thus, compare to men, the effect of money may be less relevant to women. Except that, the selectivity of sample could also contribute to this result. We asked a sample of committed individuals who were already in long-term relationships to give ratings on their current partner's characteristics.
As mentioned earlier, for committed women, making higher demands regarding a current partner might lead to reproductive cost by impairing the stability of the relationships.
Thus, relationship status could be a critical factor that influences women's adaptive trade-off. Perhaps, for a similar reason, we did not find any effect of money on women's satisfaction with their partners' resources.
When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies
In Study 2, the finding that women chose a seat further away from the attractive member of the opposite sex's seat than the men did may reflect stable gender differences in mating strategies: men generally seek more partners than women to ensure reproductive success Buss and Schmitt, Therefore, men are more likely to grasp every opportunity to approach an alternative mate and engage in extra-pair mating.
However, it is noteworthy that the effects of money on the women's approach tendency toward a romantic alternative were not smaller than the effects on the men's approach tendency. This finding is inconsistent with our hypothesis of the smaller effects for women than for men in this situation because women are stronger protectors of romantic relationships Lydon et al. The behavioral measure used in Study 2 could have contributed to the nonsignificant gender difference in the tendency to approach the attractive alternative under the influence of money.
The self-report results could be biased by social desirability concerns or limitations of self-knowledge. Previous studies have provided evidence that there is discrepancy between self-report and actual choices in mate selection preferences and have suggested drawing conclusions based on self-reported data with caution Todd et al.
In the current study, participants were blind to the purpose of the experiment. Being unaware of what was being measured, the women may have failed to hide their attitudes or inhibit their interest in the attractive alternative.
In other words, we observed their actual behaviors instead of self-reports to prevent social desirability or self-knowledge from biasing their responses. This may suggest that women's insistence on loyalty is largely influenced by external norms related to gender roles. Taken together, our findings show that both men and women use mixed mating strategies under different money-priming conditions.
These findings suggest that money does have the potential to influence romantic relationships. Individuals' satisfaction with a current partner and their interest in a romantic alternative are significantly influenced by the amount of money they possess. This suggests that money could be one of the important factors in determining the stability of romantic relationships.
Our findings also imply that the social distancing effect of money found in prior studies e. In the situation with an attractive alternative, money may exert a social engagement effect on both men and women. Despite the interesting causal effects found in our two experiments, the current research has limitations. First, participants in the two studies were college students in dating relationships. Compared with married couples, dating relationships are generally less committed and less stable.
Our findings thus cannot be directly generalized to marital relationships. Future studies should sample married individuals and examine if the money-priming effects can still be found. Second, and more importantly, we did not explore the psychological processes that mediate the influences of money on mating strategies. Future studies should examine whether men's perception of their own worth underlies the effects of money on their satisfaction with their partners and identify the mediators that underlie individuals' approach behaviors toward an attractive alternative.
Third, in Study 2, we failed to find sex differences in the effects of money on individuals' tendency to approach an attractive alternative. Findings from this study are not enough to testify whether the behavioral measure is the reason why women's short-term mating decisions are significantly affected by resources. Future studies should examine this possibility by comparing the results of behavioral measures and self-reports in similar situations; this would give us a better understanding of how to access individuals' mating choices and allow us to understand these evolutionary mechanisms more accurately.
In Study 1, we focused on mate preferences for physical attractiveness and resources because significant gender differences have consistently been found in the two attributes. Moreover, Lu et al. Lastly, we did not use the original Ideal Partner Scales in Study 1.
We shortened the scale due to the fast and short-lived priming effect Hermans et al. We also modified some items in order to make them more suitable for our Chinese student samples. Although the reliability coefficients of the revised scales were found to be acceptable, the psychometric properties of such shortened scales should be further examined in future studies.
Given its ubiquitous presence in daily life, money has been found to exert a significant impact on our romantic relationships. The current studies focused on mating strategies and explored how money induces individuals' mating decisions in long-term and extra-term contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology. Findings from our two experiments reveal that the feeling of having relatively more or less money could cause differences in mating strategies, implying that people may adjust their strategies to environmental conditions.
From the perspective of evolution, these conditional mating strategies serve as solutions to the adaptive problems our ancestors faced in ancient times. These psychological mechanisms still play important roles in human mating. The practical implication of our findings is to remind people to pay attention to the potential changes brought about by changes in the amount of money they possess.
In the discussion about relationship problems and solutions, the influence of money could be considered seriously. There is no harm in being vigilant when great changes take place in family or societal economics. Both YL and JL engaged in the design of the research, data collection and analysis, and drafting and revising the work.
DC also participated in the design of the work and data analysis, and revised the paper very critically. BZ participated in the discussion of the experiments, data collection and paper revision. All the authors have approved of the version's publishment and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Mar Darius K. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Chan kh. This article was submitted to Evolutionary Psychology and Neuroscience, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Dec 14; Accepted Mar 4. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
XLSX 30K. Abstract Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. Keywords: money, mating strategy, long term, short term, romantic relationship.
Introduction Money is often involved in love stories.
Expert Advice on Dating and Mating The authors are therapists, psychologists, and psychiatrists with or without Ph.D.-s, occasionally MD-s. Keywords: money, mating strategy, long term, short term, romantic relationship of human mating and enrich the literature on evolutionary psychology. Next . All of the participants were heterosexual and involved in a dating. The Challenges of Dating and Mating. When someone is unsatisfied with their current relationship status, it can be challenging to figure out what they may be.
Study 1 Study 1 examined whether and how the feeling of having relatively more or less money would influence individuals' satisfaction with their current partners in a long-term relationship.
Our major hypothesis is as follows: Men, not women, who feel they have relatively more money would be less satisfied with their current partners' physical attractiveness than those who feel they have relatively less money. Methods Participants A total of undergraduate and postgraduate students women, 61 menprimarily from universities in Beijing, China, participated in this study. Procedure We employed the money-priming method used by Nelson and Morrison to induce the relatively rich or poor feeling.
Materials Satisfaction with a romantic partner The scale of satisfaction with a romantic partner consisted of two dimensions, physical attractiveness and resources, which were adapted from the short version of Fletcher et al.
Results and discussion The first set of results is on the manipulation check, which examines whether the money priming method is effective. Table 1 Means and standard deviations of the dependent variables by gender and experimental condition for Study 1 and Study 2.
Evolutionary psychologists who study mating behavior often begin with a hypothesis about how modern humans mate: say, that men think. In Mating Intelligence Unleashed, psychologists Geher and Kaufman take readers on full account of this revolutionary new approach to dating, mating, and love. Dating and Mating: The Social Psychology of Attraction and Romantic Relationships, by Madeleine A Fugere, Ph.D.
Open in a separate window. Satisfaction with partner's physical attractiveness Given the possible influences of actual income Rogers, on relationship outcomes, we controlled for its effect on the dependent variables statistically.
Figure 1. Satisfaction with partner's resources Similarly, an ANCOVA was used to examine the influence of the subjective feeling of the amount of money one possesses on individuals' satisfaction with their partners' resources after controlling for the potentially confounding effects of actual income on the dependent variable.
Study 2 In Study 2, we examined whether priming the possession of money would influence the use of specific mating strategies in an extra-pair mating context in which committed participants were led to believe that they would have an encounter with an attractive person of the opposite sex.
In summary, two hypotheses were proposed: H1: Individuals who feel they have relatively more money would sit closer to an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money. Methods Participants In this study, the participants were undergraduate and postgraduate students 48 women, 73 men primarily from universities in Beijing, China. Procedure We performed a pilot study to examine the effectiveness of the money prime before the experiment. Results and discussion Three sets of results are presented below.
Distance from the participants to the attractive alternative We conducted an ANCOVA to test the influence of the feeling of having more or less money on the distance the participants chose to sit away from the attractive alternative and the moderating effect of gender.
Emotion To test whether the differences in the tendency to approach an attractive alternative were caused by emotion, we conducted a t -test to compare the differences in positive mood and negative mood across conditions. General discussion In the current studies, we used money-priming strategies to create the feeling of having relatively more or less money and examined how this feeling influences individuals' mating strategies.
Alexander and Terri D. When asked about actual sexual partners, rather than just theoretical desires, the participants who were not attached to the fake lie detector displayed typical gender differences. Men reported having had more sexual partners than women. But when participants believed that lies about their sexual history would be revealed by the fake lie detector, gender differences in reported sexual partners vanished.
In fact, women reported slightly more sexual partners a mean of 4. Inanother long-assumed gender difference in mating — that women are choosier than men — also came under siege. In speed dating, as in life, the social norm instructs women to sit in one place, waiting to be approached, while the men rotate tables. But in one study of speed-dating behavior, the evolutionary psychologists Eli J.
Finkel and Paul W. The men remained seated and the women rotated. By manipulating this component of the gender script, the researchers discovered that women became less selective — they behaved more like stereotypical men — while men were more selective and behaved more like stereotypical women.
The mere act of physically approaching a potential romantic partner, they argued, engendered more favorable assessments of that person. Recently, a third pillar appeared to fall. Roughly equal numbers of men and women agreed to the date. As for going to bed with the confederate, zero women said yes, while about 70 percent of males agreed. Those results seemed definitive — until a few years ago, when Terri D. Conley found the methodology of the paper to be less than ideal.
IN light of this new research, will Darwinians consider revising their theories to reflect the possibility that our mating behavior is less hard-wired than they had believed? A wealth of information is accessible to observers within moments. Find out what others will know about you, and what you can quickly learn about them.
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